Difference between revisions of "Lunar Titanium Production"

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On earth, Ilmenite is subjected to the Chloride Process<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloride_process</ref>, where it is reacted with [[carbon]] and [[chlorine]] to produce titanium and iron chlorides according to the formula:
 
On earth, Ilmenite is subjected to the Chloride Process<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloride_process</ref>, where it is reacted with [[carbon]] and [[chlorine]] to produce titanium and iron chlorides according to the formula:
  
:2 [[Ilmenite|FeTiO<sub>3</sub>]]  +  7 [[Cl]]<sub>2</sub>  +  6 [[C]] → 2 [[Ti]][[Cl]]<sub>4</sub> + 2 [[Fe]][[Cl]]<sub>3</sub> + 6 [[Carbon Monoxide | CO]]
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:2 [[Ilmenite|FeTiO<sub>3</sub>]]  +  7 [[Cl]]<sub>2</sub>  +  6 [[C]] → 2 [[Ti]][[Cl]]<sub>4</sub> + 2 [[Fe]][[Cl]]<sub>3</sub> + 6 [[C]][[O]]
  
The titanium tetrachloride is separated from the other reaction products by distillation. Once separated, is is reacted with liquid [[magnesium]] in the Kroll process<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kroll_process</ref>, producing [[titanium]] metal and [[magnesium]] chloride:
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The titanium tetrachloride is separated from the other reaction products by distillation. Once separated, it is reacted with liquid [[magnesium]] in the Kroll process<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kroll_process</ref>, producing [[titanium]] metal and [[magnesium]] chloride:
  
 
:[[Ti]][[Cl]]<sub>4</sub> + 2[[Mg]] → Ti + 2 [[Mg]][[Cl]]<sub>2</sub>
 
:[[Ti]][[Cl]]<sub>4</sub> + 2[[Mg]] → Ti + 2 [[Mg]][[Cl]]<sub>2</sub>
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It is possible to adapt this process to a lunar environment, though it presents some challenges. The [[chlorine]] and [[carbon]] required in the process would have to be stringently recycled, as they are rare (and hence likely to be quite expensive) in a lunar environment. The [[magnesium]] and [[iron]] chlorides could be electrolyzed to their respective metals, recovering the [[chlorine]], and the [[carbon monoxide]] can be reacted with [[hydrogen]] to produce [[methane]] and [[water]]. The methane can then be split through [[pyrolysis]] back into [[hydrogen]] and [[carbon]], and the [[water]] electrolyzed to recover the [[hydrogen]] as well as [[oxygen]] stripped from the [[Ilmenite]].
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It is possible to adapt this process to a lunar environment, though it presents some challenges. The [[chlorine]] and [[carbon]] required in the process would have to be stringently recycled, as they are rare (and hence likely to be quite expensive) in a lunar environment. The [[magnesium]] and [[iron]] chlorides would need to be electrolyzed to their respective metals, recovering the [[chlorine]]. Recovering the [[carbon]] and [[oxygen]] from the [[carbon monoxide]] is a bit less straightforward, [[Lunar Carbon Production|though several methods exist]].
 
 
  
 
== Hydrogen Reduction ==
 
== Hydrogen Reduction ==
 
see also: [[Ilmenite_Reduction#Hydrogen Reduction|Hydrogen Reduction]]
 
see also: [[Ilmenite_Reduction#Hydrogen Reduction|Hydrogen Reduction]]
  
Ilmenite could be reacted with [[hydrogen]], producing [[iron]] and [[rutile|titanium dioxide]]. The iron could then be separated by [[Carbonyl process|carbonyl extraction]], distillation, or by grinding and removing the iron particles with a magnet. The [[rutile|titanium dioxide]] would then be refined by other means.
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Ilmenite could be reacted with [[hydrogen]], producing [[iron]] and [[rutile|titanium dioxide]]. The iron could then be separated by [[Carbonyl process|carbonyl extraction]], distillation, grinding and removing the iron particles with a magnet, or melting and then allowing the products to separate. The [[rutile|titanium dioxide]] would then be refined by other means.
  
 
== FFC Cambridge Process ==
 
== FFC Cambridge Process ==
Main Article: [[FFC Cambridge Process]].
+
Main Article: [[FFC Cambridge Process#Iron/Titanium Production from Ilmenite|FFC Cambridge Process]].
 
 
The FFC Cambridge Process is a method of performing electrolysis on solid metal oxides. The developers believe it has potential to replace the Kroll Process for terrestrial titanium production, due to its greater simplicity.
 
 
 
In this process, the oxide to be reduced is formed into a cathode and subjected to electrolysis in a molten calcium chloride bath. Oxygen is stripped off and bubbles off at the anode, leaving behind a metallic sponge.
 
  
The FFC Cambridge process could be used on the titanium dioxide produced from hydrogen reduction of Ilmenite, or the [[Ilmenite]] could be directly reduced, producing an [[Iron]]-[[Titanium]] alloy, which could then be subjected to either distillation or a [[FFC Cambridge Process#Iron/Titanium Production from Ilmenite|carbonyl process]] to remove the iron.
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The FFC Cambridge Process is a method of performing electrolysis on solid metal oxides. The oxide to be reduced is formed into a cathode and subjected to electrolysis in a molten calcium chloride bath. Oxygen is stripped off and bubbles off at the anode, leaving behind a metallic sponge.
  
Recovery of the [[chlorine]] is greatly simplified by the FFC Cambridge process compared to the Kroll Process, as the [[chlorine]] remains chemically bound to the [[calcium]] throughout the whole procedure. Furthermore, calcium chloride is not soluble in most metals, and is highly soluble in water, enabling separation by washing and/or melting.
+
The FFC Cambridge process could be used on the titanium dioxide produced from hydrogen reduction of Ilmenite, or the [[Ilmenite]] could be directly reduced, producing an [[Iron]]-[[Titanium]] alloy, which is then separated by [[Carbonyl process|carbonyl extraction]] or distillation.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==

Latest revision as of 06:34, 29 November 2018

Introduction

The main source of Lunar Titanium is in the form of Ilmenite (FeTiO3). This material is found abundantly on the lunar surface, especially on the Maria. Being weakly magnetic, Ilmenite could be concentrated from the lunar regolith in a magnetic separator (a multistage device may be necessary due to other magnetic minerals present). There are several ways Titanium could be produced in a Lunar environment.


Terrestrial Production

On earth, Ilmenite is subjected to the Chloride Process[1], where it is reacted with carbon and chlorine to produce titanium and iron chlorides according to the formula:

2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO

The titanium tetrachloride is separated from the other reaction products by distillation. Once separated, it is reacted with liquid magnesium in the Kroll process[2], producing titanium metal and magnesium chloride:

TiCl4 + 2Mg → Ti + 2 MgCl2

The resulting sponge of titanium metal is then either crushed and washed or subjected to vacuum distillation to remove the magnesium chloride, and then melted and further refined to the desired purity.


It is possible to adapt this process to a lunar environment, though it presents some challenges. The chlorine and carbon required in the process would have to be stringently recycled, as they are rare (and hence likely to be quite expensive) in a lunar environment. The magnesium and iron chlorides would need to be electrolyzed to their respective metals, recovering the chlorine. Recovering the carbon and oxygen from the carbon monoxide is a bit less straightforward, though several methods exist.

Hydrogen Reduction

see also: Hydrogen Reduction

Ilmenite could be reacted with hydrogen, producing iron and titanium dioxide. The iron could then be separated by carbonyl extraction, distillation, grinding and removing the iron particles with a magnet, or melting and then allowing the products to separate. The titanium dioxide would then be refined by other means.

FFC Cambridge Process

Main Article: FFC Cambridge Process.

The FFC Cambridge Process is a method of performing electrolysis on solid metal oxides. The oxide to be reduced is formed into a cathode and subjected to electrolysis in a molten calcium chloride bath. Oxygen is stripped off and bubbles off at the anode, leaving behind a metallic sponge.

The FFC Cambridge process could be used on the titanium dioxide produced from hydrogen reduction of Ilmenite, or the Ilmenite could be directly reduced, producing an Iron-Titanium alloy, which is then separated by carbonyl extraction or distillation.

References