|In situ availability:|
|B ← C → N|
|Al ← Si → P|
|Ga ← Ge → As|
|Atomic radius (pm):||110|
|Bohr radius (pm):||111|
|Covalent radius (pm):||111|
|Van der Waals radius (pm):||210|
|ionic radius (pm):||(+4) 40|
|1st ion potential (eV):||8.15|
|Electrons Per Shell|
|2, 8, 4|
|Oxidation states:||4, 2|
|Crystal structure:||Face centered cubic|
Silicon is a Metalloid in group 14.
It has a Face centered cubic crystalline structure.
This element has 3 stable isotopes: 28, 29, and 30.
Silicon is the second most common element in the lunar crust (after oxygen). Silicon on the moon is most commonly found in the form of the silicate ion, SiO4+4. Most lunar rocks are in the form of silicates.
In elemental form, silicon is a semimetal; in purified form, it is a semiconductor which is used for semiconductor electronic devices. Wafers of single-crystal silicon may be used to make solar cells. An alloy of siicon and hydrogen, amorphous silicon (sometimes abbreviated to a-Si) is also used as a material for thin-film solar cells, which are lower in cost, but also lower in efficiency.
The primary oxide of silicon is silica, SiO2; the oxide SiO also exists, and in general, a silicon oxide may be any mixture of these, with an empirical formula SiOx. Silica is a transparent solid which may be found in crystalline or amorphous form. Silica or silicate is the primary constituent of glass. While a form of glass can be made from pure silica, the very high melting temperature of silica makes high-silica glass difficult to work with, and almost all commonly used glass contains other components. On Earth, sodium oxide is usually added to form low-cost soda-lime glass (commonly called window glass); boron oxides may then added to form the higher-cost borosilicate glass, which has a lower coefficient of thermal expansion and hence may be used in applications involving heating and cooling. Many other specialized glass formulations exist, which use silica.
Organic silicon compounds, known as silicones, are flexible compounds sometimes used as sealing materials.
Silicon Info from USGS
"Silicon (Si) is a light chemical element that combines with oxygen and other elements to form silicates. Silicon in the form of silicates constitutes more than 25% of the Earth's crust. Silica (SiO2) as quartz or quartzite is used to produce silicon ferroalloys and silicon metal. Demand for silicon ferroalloys is driven principally by the production of cast iron and steel. Silicon metal, which generally is produced like ferrosilicon in submerged-arc electric furnaces, is used not as a ferroalloy, but rather for alloying with aluminum and for production of chemicals, especially silicones. Small quantities of silicon are processed into high-purity silicon for use in the semiconductor industry." - USGS Silicon Statistics and Information
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