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In situ availability: good
Atomic number: 16
Atomic mass: 32.066
group: 16
period: 3
normal phase: Solid
series: Non-metals
density: (alpha) 2.07 g/cm3

(beta) 1.96 g/cm3
(gamma) 1.92 g/cm3

melting point: 388.36K,
boiling point: 717.8K,
P ← S → Cl
Atomic radius (pm): 100
Bohr radius (pm): 88
Covalent radius (pm): 102
Van der Waals radius (pm): 180
ionic radius (pm): (-2) 184
1st ion potential (eV): 10.36
Electron Configuration
2s2 2p6
3s2 3p4
Electrons Per Shell
2, 8, 6
Electronegativity: 2.58
Electron Affinity: 2.08
Oxidation states: +/-2, 4, 6
Magnetism: ?
Crystal structure: Orthorhombic

Sulfur is a Non-metal in group 16. It has a Orthorhombic crystalline structure. This element has 4 stable isotopes: 32, 33, 34, and 36.

Sulfur is availible in lunar soil in significant quantities, principally in the form of troilite (FeS), comprising around 1% of the lunar crust[1]. Magnetic benefication may be able to concentrate troilite out of the lunar regolith, as it is weakly magnetic when the crystal structure is incomplete, as well as being commonly associated with native iron[1]. In addition, concentrated veins of troilite have been found in some lunar rocks, and it has been suggested that larger deposits of the mineral may exist[2].

Several uses have been proposed for lunar sulfur, including rocket propellant, production of sulfuric acid for industrial processes, lunar concrete, and sealants[3].


  1. 1.0 1.1 Troilite on Wikipedia Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "wikisulfur" defined multiple times with different content
  2. I. Casanova. Feasibility and Applications of Sulfur Concrete for Lunar Base Development: A Preliminary Study. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII
  3. V. T. Vaniman, D. R. Pettit, G. Heiken. "Uses of Lunar Sulfur" Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1988