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In situ availability:
Necessity: essential
Atomic number: 29
Atomic mass: 63.546
group: 11
period: 4
normal phase: Solid
series: Transition Metals
density: 8.96 g/cm3
melting point: 1357.77K,
boiling point: 2835K,
Ni ← Cu → Zn
Atomic radius (pm): 135
Bohr radius (pm): 145
Covalent radius (pm): 138
Van der Waals radius (pm): 140
ionic radius (pm): (+2) 73
1st ion potential (eV): 7.73
Electron Configuration
2s2 2p6
3s2 3p6 3d10
Electrons Per Shell
2, 8, 18, 1
Electronegativity: 1.9
Electron Affinity: 1.24
Oxidation states: 2, 1
Magnetism: Diamagnetic
Crystal structure: Orthorhombic

Copper is a Transition Metal in group 11. It has a Orthorhombic crystalline structure.

This element has two stable isotopes: 63 and 65.

Copper seems to be rare on the Moon. As it is one of the main industrial metal, it will either be imported or replaced by aluminum. Replacement of copper by aluminum on Earth has been accomplished in a number of fields, but a lot of work would be required to replace all uses of copper. On Earth copper is extracted at a ratio of about 0,6% compared to Iron (1:150). And 1:2 compared to aluminum.

Copper is an essential trace element in food. A typical human body contains 0,000072 kg[1]. For one million persons the copper required would be 72 kg. For an entire ecosystem serving these one million people the amount required might be about ten tonnes (hypothetical ratio of 100:1).

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