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Atomic number: 90
Atomic mass: 232.0381
group: 19
period: N/A
normal phase: Solid
series: Actinide
density: 11.7 g/cm3
melting point: 2115K,
boiling point: 5061K,
Ac ← Th → Pa
Atomic radius (pm): 180
Bohr radius (pm):
Covalent radius (pm):
Van der Waals radius (pm):
ionic radius (pm): (+4) 94
1st ion potential (eV): 6.08
Electron Configuration
2s2 2p6
3s2 3p6 3d10
4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14
5s2 5p6 5d10
6s2 6p6 6d2
Electrons Per Shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Electronegativity: 1.3
Electron Affinity: -
Oxidation states: 4
Magnetism: ?
Crystal structure: Face centered cubic

Thorium is a Actinide metal. It has a Face centered cubic crystalline structure. This element has no stable isotopes.

Thorium is a soft, very ductile, silver-gray, heavy, metallic element of the actinide series of elements. Thorium is used in some high strength alloys and ultraviolet photoelectric cells. Thorium is present in small quantities in all volcanic rocks, and is used as a tracer when looking for geologic concentrations of KREEP-bearing materials. The rim of Mare Imbrium is neatly traced by thorium's gamma ray emissions as detected by Lunar Prospector. Uranium-Thorium radioactive dating is a key technique for establishing the date of rocks.

When bombarded with neutrons thorium becomes uranium 233, a fuel for nuclear reactors. Since nuclear reactors produce neutrons, this cycle can be used as a self-sustaining nuclear reaction producing power from Thorium fuel, although at present no commercial reactors use this fuel.

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